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How to Think Like A Horse: The Essential Handbook for Understanding Why Horses Do What They Do

Horse Stable and Riding Arena Design

Horse Owner's Veterinary Handbook (Howell Reference Books)

Horsekeeping on a Small Acreage: Designing and Managing Your Equine Facilities

- Horse Terms Beginning With A -

Abaxial: farrier's term. Something abaxial is away from the central axis of its structure

Abcess: a localized collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue

Abdomen: the area of a horse's middle that contains the intestines and stomach

Abduct: when one area of the body moves away from another part (such as one leg moving forward to meet the other).

Above The Bit: when the horse carries its head high, so that the level of the horse's mouth is above the level of the rider's hand

Abort, Abortion: when a dead embryo or is absorbed or expelled prior to the time when it could survive outside the uterus

Abrasion: scrape on the horse's skin

Accessory Carpal: Pisiform bone, in the back of the knee. It does not support horse's weight, it is a sesamoid bone and functions as a pulley that flexor tendons can use to gain leverage

Accloy: to hobble a horse by driving a horseshoe nail in wrong; see 'quick'

Acey-Deucy: uneven stirrups, popularized by Eddie Arcaro, who rode with his left iron higher than his right in order to achieve better balance on turns

Acorn: a type of nut that is poisonous to horses in large amounts

Acre: Land measurement unit; 4,840 square yards, 43,560 square feet

Across The Board: three equal bets, to win, place and show, on one horse

Action: the way a horse moves. Good, straight action means that the hind legs follow the forelegs exactly, moving straight to back with no sideways deviations

Active Immunization: a vaccination

Added Money: in a rodeo or horse event, the extra prize money that is added to the contestant's entry fees. The winner takes all or some percent of the 'pot', which is all the prize money, including the added and the entry fee money

Adduct: when one part of the body moves toward another (such as a horse's legs)

Adulticide: medication used to kill adult worms

Advanced Horse: a horse that is well trained

Afterbirth: placenta, surrounds the foal in the uterus and transfers nutrients between mare and foal. Also removes waste

Age: the age of the horse, computed from January first on the year the horse was born

A Good Length Of Rein: a neck that is nicely in proportion to the body, and not too short; also well set on a good shoulder

Aged: a horse that is fifteen years or older (or nine, depending on who you ask. There are different definitions of this word.)

Agent: A person authorized to act on the behalf of a jockey or owner. Generally refers to a jockey's agent who lines up rides for him or her

Aging: estimating the age of a horse by its teeth

A.I.: Artificial Insemination. the mechanical introduction of semen into the mare's reproductive system.

Aid: a signal given to the horse by the rider such as aids for the canter, asking the horse to canter

Airs: Movements, usually used in formal dressage

Airs Above The Ground: exercises of the High School of classical equitation which result in either both forelegs, or forelegs and hind legs, leaving the ground

Akhal-Teke: an ancient breed of horse originating in the Turkmenistan area, north of Iran and east of the Caspian Sea

Albino: the term used to indicate lack of pigment. True albino horses have pink skin, white hair coat and pink eyes

Alfalfa: A leguminous plant used mostly for hay, usually high in protein and calcium

Allele: the alternative form of a given gene. For each gene there are two alleles, one on each chromosome of a chromosome pair. One allele is inherited from the mother, the other from the father

All Out: a horse who is trying to the best of his ability

Allowance Race: a race where weights and eligibility to enter are determined by conditions set by the racing secretary

Alpha Horse: the dominant horse in the herd that has first access to anything which is scarce in the environment, and can threaten any other horse in the herd

Also-Eligible: a horse entered in the race but who cannot start unless another horse is scratched

Also-Ran: a horse who finishes out of the money

Alter: sometimes used to refer to gelding a stallion

Amatuer: rider over eighteen that does not get paid for riding.

Amateur-Owner: class open to horses whose owner or member of owner's immediate family is the rider

Amble: A smooth, fast lateral gait; a less vigorous version of the pace. Both hind leg and foreleg on one side move forward at the same time, then both legs on the other side, and so on.

Amino Acid: the main component of protein that the horse breaks proteins down to for absorption

Amnion: the placental membrane immediately surrounding the foal

Anal Sphincter: the circular band or ring of muscle that controls the release of feces from the anus

Andalusian: an elegant breed of horse originating in the Iberian Peninsula,known in Portugal as the Lusitano

Anestrus: when a mare is not in heat or cycle

Anhidrosis: the inability to sweat. First reported in Thoroughbred racehorses who were taken from temperate to tropical climates, but occurs in any breed of horse. This can be deadly, as the horse cannot regulat its body temperature and can result in overheating

Animule: a old, crippled horse. British origins, used by the Mountain People of Central Pennsylvania

Ankyloblepharon: the failure of one or both eyelids of the newborn to open at the appropriate time

Anorexia: a lack of appetite, usually caused by a disease. The horse will refuse to eat or will eat little, loose weight rapidly, act dull and lifeless, and will have an unhealthy physical appearance. If not treated, the horse will die

Anthelmintics: the name given to the various deworming medications used to control equine internal parasites

Antigen: substance, often in protein form, that the body's immune system will react to by producing antibodies

Antiseptic: a chemical that inhibits the growth of microorganisms without killing them

Antitoxin: a substance that acts against specific toxins. it produced by the body and carried in the bloodstream

Anvil: a farrier's tool: heavy iron or steel base for shaping horse shoes

Aorta: a large artery in horses and all mammals that carries blood to arteries of the limbs and organs except lungs

Appaloosa: an American light horse breed that was bred by northwest Indian tribes near the Palouse valley. It is known for its spotted coat, wispy mane and tail, striped hooves, and white sclera (area around eye). It is very common and is very versatile, used from everything from dressage to rodeo

Appendix: a horse that is registered in the Appendix of the American Quarter Horse Registry. Quarter Horse/Thoroughbred cross

Appointments: tack, equipment, and attire

Apprentice: a rider who has not ridden a specified amount of winners within a specific time period. These riders get weight allowances on all their mounts based on the number of winners they have. 10 pounds until the fifth winner, 7 pounds until the 35th winner and five pounds for one calendar year after the date of the 5th winner

Appuyer: old French word describing a movement where horse goes forward and to one side. In America it is known as 'two-tracking' or travelling on two paths

Appy: abbreviation for 'Appaloosa'

Apron: a garmet made of leather or ballistic nylon worn by farriers to protect their legs from hot shoes or horseshoe nails

Araappaloosa: cross between an Arabian horse and an Appaloosa horse

Arab: abbreviation for 'Arabian'

Arabian: an ancient and graceful breed of horse, originating in the deserts of the Middle East and having a strong influence on many other breeds, including the Thoroughbred

Arena: a large indoor or outdoor riding area usually fenced, and with soft footing

Arm and Hammer: A brand of forged farrier's anvils produced between 1900 to 1950

Armlets: numbered armband worn by a racehorse's groom or person leading a racehorse

Artificial Aids: object by which the rider gets the horse to respond, such a with spurs or a whip

Artificial Insemination: the act of impregnating a mare without bringing her in contact with a stallion. Semen is collected from a stud, then shipped to the mare owner, and the mare is impregnated by a vet with the semen received from the stud

Artificial Vagina: a mechanical device with a rubber liner used to collect semen from the stallion

Arthritis: inflammation of the joints

Ascarids: roundworms

Ascaris (plural ascarids): large white intestinal parasite; in the horse the common ascaris is Paracaris equorum

Aspirate: to pull back slightly on the plunger to draw back fluids into the plunger to check whether the needle has entered the blood vessel

Astride: when a rider sits on a horse with one leg on either side of the horse

At Grass: a horse that has been turned out in a pasture or field

Atlas: the first vertabrae in the horse's neck

Atrophy: a deterioration of body tissue

Attire: the rider's clothes

Aural Flat Warts: skin warts that are found on the ears of horses greater than a year of age; caused by a papillomavirus

Avascular Necrosis: a bone disease seen in young, sometimes overworked, horses where the bones die and deteriorate from lack of blood. This disease also goes by other names: aseptic necrosis, osteochrondritis, and ischemic bone necrosis

Average: rodeo term. The scores in all the 'go rounds' (person's turn in an event) plus the score of the 'short go' (championship round).

Aversion Conditioning: when a horse learns avoidance of unpleasant situations, such as an encounter with an electric fence

Axis (axial): farrier's term. The central line of a body part, on or close to the line where the structure would rotate. The center pivitol point

Azoturia: a condition in which the horse experiences prolonged muscle contractions during exercise. Exercise-induced myositis. Also known as tying-up and Monday Morning sickness, because the condition often appears in fit horses following a period of rest

Azteca Horse: the Azteca Horse is a relatively new breed of horse, developed in Mexico by crossing Andalusians, Criollos and Quarter Horses

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