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How to Think Like A Horse: The Essential Handbook for Understanding Why Horses Do What They Do

Horse Stable and Riding Arena Design

Horse Owner's Veterinary Handbook (Howell Reference Books)

Horsekeeping on a Small Acreage: Designing and Managing Your Equine Facilities

Why Communism Failed in the Soviet Union

The rise of Communism in the European countries and Russia began the downfall of political policies and established principles. Communism is said to have begun with the ancient Greek idea of the Golden Age ' the concept of the world in communal bliss and harmony without the institution of private property. A communist, someone who stresses the abolition of all private property except immediate personal goods, ultimately seeks to overthrow capitalist order by innovative means and establish a classless civilization in which all goods are socially owned.

The development of Communism was ultimately begun with the split of the Russian Social Democratic Labor party into the Bolshevik and the Menshevik alliances. Credited with beginning Communism is Bolshevik Leader Vladimir Lenin ' while Lenin was alive and reigned, he was the undisputed leader of the Russian Communist Party. As opposition increased, he became alarmed and persuaded others to ban the formation of factions, as it would divide and weaken Communism as a whole. Lenin's reign lasted a number of years, and after his death, Joseph Stalin took over and began his Reign of Terror.

Many movements were held concerning Communism and its effects on the people as a whole, and prominent leaders of the Communist effort published pamphlets, brochures, and books promoting Communism. The Communist Manifesto, one such document, tells how Communism sprouted, explains the role of Communists, attacks other forms of socialism, and appeals to all to embrace Communism. Two prominent authors of Communist paraphernalia who managed to stir up a lot of dissension were Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels.

By the end of the Civil War, the Communist leaders realized that spontaneous revolutions in Europe weren't going to happen, so they settled for ruling Russia. The country had to be built back up after its destruction from the revolutions that took place ' under Communist rule it was rebuilt, with little or no enthusiasm from the Russian people.

When Joseph Stalin began his reign, people began to fear him and his orders. He purged thousands of those whom he thought might create a threat to his power, including thousands of Bolsheviks who were originally associated with Lenin and more that 80% of his own government delegates.  A secret police agency was formed to search out those who wanted to remove Stalin from power. He wanted to crush all opposition in Russia, and accomplished this the only way he knew ' through terror. He killed every person who helped him rise to power because he so feared that they could be a threat to his reign. Stalin was hated and feared by people worldwide.

Communism confiscated all private property, forced people to work in atrocious environments, and seized the belongings of everyone so the people were left destitute. Government owned all machines, tools, and raw materials, and no one could buy or sell them. Food became a shortage, and since fewer people were growing food, those few had to produce even more to provide for everyone else. Stalin forced industrialization on the country and tried to create fifty to a hundred years of work in ten years. He forced millions of Russians to work in factories and produce machinery. People were put on trial and executed for no reason, and thousands of Russians died from starvation and lack of resources.

Once people began to realize how Communism affected them directly, they began to rebel. They attacked the Soviet leaders and refused to work; however, no progress was made for quite some time. People who wanted Parliamentary reform initiated the Chartist Movement, which was the most serious threat to the Communist government. Although many conventions and petitions were held, no debates were allowed and the movement eventually collapsed.

Ronald Reagan, a former US president, played a very important part in defeating Communism's hold on Europe and the Soviet Union. Reagan was the only person who foresaw the changes and effects Communism would have on the country, and in 1981 was even quoted as having said it would be a bizarre chapter of our history whose last pages were being written. Ronald Reagan performed near miracles in keeping Communism from overrunning the world. He limited commercial credit allowed to the Soviets, he blocked their access to the advanced technology of the Western world, kept its armies bogged down, and cost them billions of dollars in forced arms shipments. It was the massive military buildup he formed that culminated the demise of the Soviet Union's Communist policies and the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the incredible amount of money he spent of weapons systems and technology paid off with the mere threat they imposed on the Soviet Union. Despite the protests of others who believed his ways wouldn't work, Reagan persevered and ultimately saved millions of lives by terminating the reign of Communism.

Communism, which had reigned for nearly 150 years, was coming to an end. After so many years of demoralization, disillusion, degeneration, division, and decay of the Soviet Union, Communism had reached the end of its rope. Because the nation rebelled against Communism so strongly, although they feared its leaders such as Stalin, Communism could not keep on. Without the support of the people, no regimes could withhold. The people were now beginning to stand on their own two feet and take responsibility for their own actions. Although Communism deprived people of freedom and choice, the need for an organization of political protest fortified with an emotionally reassuring set of action based premises is still around, and Communism is probably guaranteed an existence for quite some time to come.


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